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Ultraviolet
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“Watch your thoughts, they become words; watch your words, they become actions; watch your actions, they become habits; watch your habits, they become character; watch your character, for it becomes destiny.”
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin, and UVR8. The dashed line represents each bioactive absorption spectrum. 2. Phytochrome; red-far red photoreversible molecular switch What is phytochrome? Phytochrome is a photochromic photoreceptor, and has two absorption types, a red light absorption type Pr (absorption maximum wavelength of about 665 nm) and a far-red light absorption type Pfr (730 nm). Reversible light conversion between the two by red light and far-red light, respectively(Fig. 1A, solid line and broken line). In general, Pfr is the active form that causes a physiological response. With some exceptions, phytochrome can be said to function as a photoreversible molecular switch. The background of the discovery is as follows. There are some types of plants that require light for germination (light seed germination). From that study, it was found that germination was induced by red light, the effect was inhibited by subsequent far-red light irradiation, and this could be repeated, and the existence of photoreceptors that reversibly photoconvert was predicted. In 1959, its existence was confirmed by the absorption spectrum measurement of the yellow sprout tissue, and it was named phytochrome. Why does the plant have a sensor to distinguish between such red light and far-red light? There is no big difference between the red and far-red light regions in the open-field spectrum of sunlight, but the proportion of red light is greatly reduced due to the absorption of chloroplasts in the shade of plants. Similar changes in light quality occur in the evening sunlight. Plants perceive this difference in light quality as the ratio of Pr and Pfr, recognize the light environment, and respond to it. Subsequent studies have revealed that it is responsible for various photomorphogenic reactions such as photoperiodic flowering induction, shade repellent, and deyellowing (greening). Furthermore, with the introduction of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (At) and the development of molecular biological analysis methods, research has progressed dramatically, and his five types of phytochromes (phyA-E) are present in Arabidopsis thaliana. all right. With the progress of the genome project, Fi’s tochrome-like photoreceptors were found in cyanobacteria, a photosynthetic prokaryotes other than plants. Furthermore, in non-photosynthetic bacteria, a homologue molecule called bacteriophytochrome photoreceptor (BphP) was found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and radiation-resistant bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans, Dr). Domain structure of phytochrome molecule Phytochrome molecule can be roughly divided into N-terminal side and C-terminal side region. PAS (Per / Arndt / Sim: blue), GAF (cGMP phosphodiesterase / adenylyl cyclase / FhlA: green), PHY (phyto-chrome: purple) 3 in the N-terminal region of plant phytochrome (Fig. 2A) There are two domains and an N-terminal extension region (NTE: dark blue), and phytochromobilin (PΦB), which is one of the ring-opening tetrapyrroles, is thioether-bonded to the system stored in GAF as a chromophore. ing. PAS is a domain involved in the interaction between signal transduction-related proteins, and PHY is a phytochrome-specific domain. There are two PASs and her histidine kinase-related (HKR) domain (red) in the C-terminal region, but the histidine essential for kinase activity is not conserved. 3. Phototropin; photosynthetic efficiency optimized blue light receptor What is phototropin? Charles Darwin, who is famous for his theory of evolution, wrote in his book “The power of move-ment in plants” published in 1882 that plants bend toward blue light. Approximately 100 years later, the protein nph1 (nonphoto-tropic hypocotyl 1) encoded by one of the causative genes of Arabidopsis mutants causing phototropic abnormalities was identified as a blue photoreceptor. Later, another isotype npl1 was found and renamed phototropin 1 (phot1) and 2 (phot2), respectively. In addition to phototropism, phototropin is damaged by chloroplast photolocalization (chloroplasts move through the epidermal cells of the leaves and gather on the cell surface under appropriate light intensity for photosynthesis. As a photoreceptor for reactions such as escaping to the side of cells under dangerous strong light) and stomata (reactions that open stomata to optimize the uptake of carbon dioxide, which is the rate-determining process of photosynthetic reactions). It became clear that it worked. In this way, phototropin can be said to be a blue light receptor responsible for optimizing photosynthetic efficiency. Domain structure and LOV photoreaction of phototropin molecule Phototropin molecule has two photoreceptive domains (LOV1 and LOV2) called LOV (Light-Oxygen-Voltage sensing) on the N-terminal side, and serine / on the C-terminal side. It is a protein kinase that forms threonine kinase (STK) (Fig. 4Aa) and whose activity is regulated by light. LOV is one molecule as a chromophore, he binds FMN (flavin mononucleotide) non-covalently. The LOV forms an α/βfold, and the FMN is located on a β-sheet consisting of five antiparallel β-strands (Fig. 4B). The FMN in the ground state LOV shows the absorption spectrum of a typical oxidized flavin protein with a triplet oscillation structure and an absorption maximum wavelength of 450 nm, and is called D450 (Fig. 1C and Fig. 4E). After being excited to the singlet excited state by blue light, the FMN shifts to the triplet excited state (L660t *) due to intersystem crossing, and then the C4 (Fig. 4C) of the isoaroxazine ring of the FMN is conserved in the vicinity. It forms a transient accretionary prism with the tain (red part in Fig. 4B Eα) (S390I). When this cysteine is replaced with alanine (C / A substitution), the addition reaction does not occur. The effect of adduct formation propagates to the protein moiety, causing kinase activation (S390II). After that, the formed cysteine-flavin adduct spontaneously dissociates and returns to the original D450 (Fig. 4E, dark regression reaction). Phototropin kinase activity control mechanism by LOV2 Why does phototropin have two LOVs? Atphot1 was found as a protein that is rapidly autophosphorylated when irradiated with blue light. The effect of the above C / A substitution on this self-phosphorylation reaction and phototropism was investigated, and LOV2 is the main photomolecular switch in both self-phosphorylation and phototropism. It turns out that it functions as. After that, from experiments using artificial substrates, STK has a constitutive activity, LOV2 functions as an inhibitory domain of this activity, and the inhibition is eliminated by photoreaction, while LOV1 is kinase light. It was shown to modify the photosensitivity of the activation reaction. In addition to this, LOV1 was found to act as a dimerization site from the crystal structure and his SAXS. What kind of molecular mechanism does LOV2 use to photoregulate kinase activity? The following two modules play important roles in this intramolecular signal transduction. Figure 4 (A) Domain structure of LOV photoreceptors. a: Phototropin b: Neochrome c: FKF1 family protein d: Aureochrome (B) Crystal structure of auto barley phot1 LOV2. (C) Structure of FMN isoaroxazine ring. (D) Schematic diagram of the functional domain and module of Arabidopsis thaliana phot1. L, A’α, and Jα represent linker, A’α helix, and Jα helix, respectively. (E) LOV photoreaction. (F) Molecular structure model (mesh) of the LOV2-STK sample (black line) containing A’α of phot2 obtained based on SAXS under dark (top) and under bright (bottom). The yellow, red, and green space-filled models represent the crystal structures of LOV2-Jα, protein kinase A N-lobe, and C-robe, respectively, and black represents FMN. See the text for details. 1) Jα. LOV2 C of oat phot1-to α immediately after the terminus Rix (Jα) is present (Fig. 4D), which interacts with the β-sheet (Fig. 4B) that forms the FMN-bound scaffold of LOV2 in the dark, but unfolds and dissociates from the β-sheet with photoreaction. It was shown by NMR that it does. According to the crystal structure of LOV2-Jα, this Jα is located on the back surface of the β sheet and mainly has a hydrophobic interaction. The formation of S390II causes twisting of the isoaroxazine ring and protonation of N5 (Fig. 4C). As a result, the glutamine side chain present on his Iβ strand (Fig. 4B) in the β-sheet rotates to form a hydrogen bond with this protonated N5. Jα interacts with this his Iβ strand, and these changes are thought to cause the unfold-ing of Jα and dissociation from the β-sheet described above. Experiments such as amino acid substitution of Iβ strands revealed that kinases exhibit constitutive activity when this interaction is eliminated, and that Jα plays an important role in photoactivation of kinases. 2) A’α / Aβ gap. Recently, several results have been reported showing the involvement of amino acids near the A’α helix (Fig. 4D) located upstream of the N-terminal of LOV2 in kinase photoactivation. Therefore, he investigated the role of this A’α and its neighboring amino acids in kinase photoactivation, photoreaction, and Jα structural change for Atphot1. The LOV2-STK polypeptide (Fig. 4D, underlined in black) was used as a photocontrollable kinase for kinase activity analysis. As a result, it was found that the photoactivation of the kinase was abolished when amino acid substitution was introduced into the A’α / Aβ gap between A’α and Aβ of the LOV2 core. Interestingly, he had no effect on the structural changes in Jα examined on the peptide map due to the photoreaction of LOV2 or trypsin degradation. Therefore, the A’α / Aβ gap is considered to play an important role in intramolecular signal transduction after Jα. Structural changes detected by SAXS Structural changes of Jα have been detected by various biophysical methods other than NMR, but structural information on samples including up to STK is reported only by his results to his SAXS. Not. The SAXS measurement of the Atphot2 LOV2-STK polypeptide showed that the radius of inertia increased from 32.4 Å to 34.8 Å, and the molecular model (Fig. 4F) obtained by the ab initio modeling software GASBOR is that of LOV2 and STK. It was shown that the N lobes and C lobes lined up in tandem, and the relative position of LOV2 with respect to STK shifted by about 13 Å under light irradiation. The difference in the molecular model between the two is considered to reflect the structural changes that occur in the Jα and A’α / Aβ gaps mentioned above. Two phototropins with different photosensitivity In the phototropic reaction of Arabidopsis Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis responds to a very wide range of light intensities from 10–4 to 102 μmol photon / sec / m2. At that time, phot1 functions as an optical sensor in a wide range from low light to strong light, while phot2 reacts with light stronger than 1 μmol photon / sec / m2. What is the origin of these differences? As is well known, animal photoreceptors have a high photosensitivity due to the abundance of rhodopsin and the presence of biochemical amplification mechanisms. The exact abundance of phot1 and phot2 in vivo is unknown, but interesting results have been obtained in terms of amplification. The light intensity dependence of the photoactivation of the LOV2-STK polypeptide used in the above kinase analysis was investigated. It was found that phot1 was about 10 times more photosensitive than phot2. On the other hand, when the photochemical reactions of both were examined, it was found that the rate of the dark return reaction of phot1 was about 10 times slower than that of phot2. This result indicates that the longer the lifetime of S390II, which is in the kinase-activated state, the higher the photosensitivity of kinase activation. This correlation was further confirmed by extending the lifespan of her S390II with amino acid substitutions. This alone cannot explain the widespread differences in photosensitivity between phot1 and phot2, but it may explain some of them. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate in detail protein modifications such as phosphorylation and the effects of phot interacting factors on photosensitivity. Other LOV photoreceptors Among fern plants and green algae, phytochrome ɾphotosensory module (PSM) on the N-terminal side and chimera photoreceptor with full-length phototropin on the C-terminal side, neochrome (Fig. There are types with 4Ab). It has been reported that some neochromes play a role in chloroplast photolocalization as a red light receiver. It is considered that fern plants have such a chimera photoreceptor in order to survive in a habitat such as undergrowth in a jungle where only red light reaches. In addition to this, plants have only one LOV domain, and three proteins involved in the degradation of photomorphogenesis-related proteins, FKF1 (Flavin-binding, Kelch repeat, F-box 1, ZTL (ZEITLUPE)), LKP2 ( There are LOV Kelch Protein2) (Fig. 4Ac) and aureochrome (Fig. 4Ad), which has a bZip domain on the N-terminal side of LOV and functions as a gene transcription factor. 4. Cryptochrome and UVR8 Cryptochrome is one of the blue photoreceptors and forms a superfamily with the DNA photoreceptor photolyase. It has FAD (flavin adenine dinucle-otide) as a chromophore and tetrahydrofolic acid, which is a condensing pigment. The ground state of FAD is considered to be the oxidized type, and the radical type (broken line in Fig. 1B) generated by blue light irradiation is considered to be the signaling state. The radical type also absorbs in the green to orange light region, and may widen the wavelength region of the plant morphogenesis reaction spectrum. Cryptochrome uses blue light to control physiological functions similar to phytochrome. It was identified as a photoreceptor from one of the causative genes of UVR8 Arabidopsis thaliana, and the chromophore is absorbed in the UVB region by a Trp triad consisting of three tryptophans (Fig. 1D). It is involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and anthocyanins that function as UV scavengers in plants. Conclusion It is thought that plants have acquired various photoreceptors necessary for their survival during a long evolutionary process. The photoreceptors that cover the existing far-red light to UVB mentioned here are considered to be some of them. More and more diverse photoreceptor genes are conserved in cyanobacteria and marine plankton. By examining these, it is thought that the understanding of plant photoreceptors will be further deepened.
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Ultraviolet
@NegotiatedBubble, Oh shit when did you ask this I missed it altogether, so sorry! Photoreceptor for ir is extremely sensitive and requires very little to invoke a response, 15min is roughly the minimum required before the plant will register and act accordingly as for intensity, IR is thermal-based radiation and heats the plants internally, make sure the leaf surface temp does not exceed 86 as anything over will stunt growth dramatically. Every plant being different, I have had some notable results with small 30w bulbs, but this was close.
NegotiatedBubble
NegotiatedBubble
@Ultraviolet, do you have an opinions on how you apply far-red wavelength in your grow space? Mainly intensity. I am ordering separate IR light bars for my grow.
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Ultraviolet
For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
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Ultraviolet
POTASSIUM Potassium 40 is a radioisotope that can be found in trace amounts in natural potassium, and is at the origin of more than half of the human body activity: undergoing between 4 and 5,000 decays every second for an 80kg man. Along with uranium and thorium, potassium contributes to the natural radioactivity of rocks and hence to the Earth's heat. This isotope makes up ten thousandths of the potassium found naturally. In terms of atomic weight, it is located between two more stable and far more abundant isotopes (potassium 39 and potassium 41) that make up 93.25% and 6.73% of the Earth's total potassium supply respectively. With a half-life of 1,251 billion years, potassium 40 existed in the remnants of dead stars whose agglomeration has led to the Solar System with its planets. Potassium 40 has the unusual property of decaying into two different nuclei: in 89% of cases, beta-negative decay will lead to calcium 40, while 11% of the time argon 40 will be formed by electron capture followed by gamma emission at an energy of 1.46 MeV. This 1.46 MeV gamma ray is important, as it allows us to identify when potassium 40 decays. The beta electrons leading to calcium, however, are not accompanied by gamma rays, have no characteristic energies, and rarely make it out of the rocks or bodies that contain potassium 40. Beta-minus decay indicates a nucleus with too many neutrons, and electron capture a nucleus with too many protons. How can potassium 40 simultaneously have too many of both? The answer reveals one of the peculiarities of nuclear forces. Everyone has roughly 140g of potassium = 0.016 grams of Potassium 40 = 5.643ounces The charge radius is a fundamental property of the atomic nucleus. Although it globally scales with the nuclear mass as A1/3, the nuclear charge radius also exhibits appreciable isotopic variations that are the result of complex interactions between protons and neutrons. Indeed, charge radii reflect various nuclear structure phenomena such as halo structures6, shape staggering7, shape coexistence8, pairing correlations9,10, neutron skins11, and the occurrence of nuclear magic numbers5,12,13. The term ‘magic number’ refers to the number of protons or neutrons corresponding to completely filled shells. In charge radii, a shell closure is observed as a sudden increase in the charge radius of the isotope just beyond magic shell closure, as seen, for example, at the well-known magic numbers N = 28, 50, 82, and 126 (refs. 5,12–14). In the nuclear mass region near potassium, the isotopes with proton number Z ≈ 20 and neutron number N = 32 are proposed to be magic on the basis of an observed sudden decrease in their binding energy beyond N = 32 (refs. 2,3) and the high excitation energy of the first excited state in 52Ca (ref. 1). Therefore, the experimentally observed a strong increase in the charge radii of calcium4 and potassium5 isotopes between N = 28 and N = 32, and in particular the large radius of 51K and 52Ca (both having 32 neutrons), have attracted substantial attention.
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Ultraviolet
Azomite has 180ppms of Thorium.
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Ultraviolet
Thorium (chemical symbol Th) is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found at trace levels in soil, rocks, water, plants, and animals. Thorium is solid under normal conditions. There are natural and man-made forms of thorium, all of which are radioactive. In general, naturally occurring thorium exists as Th-232, Th-230, or Th-228. The atomic number of 90 - THORIUM, at atomic number 90, is one of the rarest elements. 232Th is a primordial nuclide, having existed in its current form for over ten billion years; it was formed during the r-process, which probably occurs in supernovae and neutron star mergers. These violent events scattered across the galaxy. The letter "r" stands for "rapid neutron capture", and occurs in core-collapse supernovae, where heavy seed nuclei such as 56Fe rapidly capture neutrons, running up against the neutron drip line, as neutrons are captured much faster than the resulting nuclides can beta decay back toward stability. Neutron capture is the only way for stars to synthesize elements beyond iron because of the increased Coulomb barriers that make interactions between charged particles difficult at high atomic numbers and the fact that fusion beyond 56Fe is endothermic. Because of the abrupt loss of stability past 209Bi, the r-process is the only process of stellar nucleosynthesis that can create thorium and uranium; all other processes are too slow and the intermediate nuclei alpha decay before they capture enough neutrons to reach these elements. Histogram of estimated abundances of the 83 primordial elements in the Solar system. Estimated abundances of the 83 primordial elements in the Solar system, plotted on a logarithmic scale. Thorium, at atomic number 90, is one of the rarest elements. In the universe, thorium is among the rarest of the primordial elements, because it is one of the two elements that can be produced only in the r-process (the other being uranium). R-Process can only be achieved dealing with forces traveling at or close to the speed of light.
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e = 2.718 2+7+1+8=18 1+8=9 The “e” symbol in maths represents Euler’s number which is approximately equal to 2.718 It is considered as one of the most important numbers in mathematics. It is an irrational number and it cannot be represented as a simple fraction.
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2. Newland’s Octaves English scientist John Newlands arranged the 56 known elements in increasing order of atomic mass in the year 1866. He observed a trend wherein every eighth element exhibited properties similar to the first. This similarity in the properties of every eighth element can be illustrated as follows. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Newland’s Law of Octaves states that when the elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic mass, the periodicity in properties of two elements which have an interval of seven elements in between them would be similar.
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1. Dobereiner’s Triads German chemist Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner attempted to classify elements with similar properties into groups of three elements each. These groups were called ‘triads’. Dobereiner suggested that in these triads, the atomic mass of the element in the middle would be more or less equal to the mean of the atomic masses of the other two elements in the triad. An example of such a triad would be one containing lithium, sodium, and potassium. The atomic mass of lithium 6.94 and that of potassium is 39.10. The element in the middle of this triad, sodium, has an atomic mass of 22.99 which is more or less equal to the mean of the atomic masses of lithium and potassium (which is 23.02). 9 controls the 6 and 3. The Limitations of Dobereiner’s Triads are : All the elements known at that time couldn’t be classified into triads. Only four triads were mentioned – (Li,Na,K ), (Ca,Sr,Ba) , (Cl,Br,I) , (S,Se,Te).
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In 1200 AD an Italian noticed that plants grow from the ground in a certain way. He observed that when the shoot pushed from the soil it created the stem first. Soon after appeared the first leaves and branches. It looked like this: Plant The man was called Leonardo Pisano and he lived in Pisa. Today though, he is remembered at Leonardo Fibonacci from filius Bonacci, which means “the son of Bonaccio”. Simply by observing nature, he rediscovered the long lost creation sequence: 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144… Pythagoras called this God BREATHING ON THE NUMBERS, but today it is simply referred to as the Fibonacci sequence. This series is neither arithmetic (based on the addition of numbers by a constant: 1, 2, 3, 4…) nor geometric (based on the multiplication of numbers by a constant: 2, 4, 6, 8…) but instead recursive. This sequence is based on the addition of two adjacent numbers to produce a third: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13…If we wished to express this sequence as an equation it would look like: x + 1 = x² Solving for x using the quadratic equation we get x = 1.618. When using this number we denote it as Φ and refer to it as Phi in commemoration of the Greek sculptor Phidias. We call this relationship the GOLDEN RATIO or 1:1.618. But Leonardo Pisano did much more than rediscover the Fibonacci sequence—he brought “Indian numbers” to Europe. The familiar digits of 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and of course 0 became the building blocks of modern mathematics. This sequence identified zero (zephirum) not only as “nothing” but as a number in its own right. Leonardo used this sequence to show merchants how to use these numbers in everyday transactions. There are two features of this numbering that are helpful: one is the idea that the position of a number in a sequence indicates its size (so 90 is 10 times 9). The other is that this position system only works if one of the ten numerals stands for nothing. In other words, the language of mathematics only works if zero is also considered the sign for an operation—the process of changing a digit’s value by moving its place. The Fibonacci numbers are Nature’s numbering system. They appear everywhere in Nature, from the leaf arrangement in plants to the pattern of the florets of a flower, the bracts of a pinecone, or the scales of a pineapple. The Fibonacci numbers are therefore applicable to the growth of every living thing, including a single cell, a grain of wheat, a hive of bees, and even all of mankind. Nature follows the Fibonacci numbers astonishingly. But very little do we observe the beauty of nature. The Great poet Rabindranath Tagore also noted this. If we study the pattern of various natural things minutely we observe that many of the natural things around us follow the Fibonacci numbers in real life which creates strangeness among us. The study of nature is very important for learners. It increases the inquisitiveness among the learners. The topic is chosen so that learners could be interested in the study of nature around them. Security in a communication system is an interesting topic at present as India is going towards digitalization. A little bit of concept for securing data is also provided in this model. Let us finish with the words of Leonardo da Vinci “Learn how to see, Realize that everything connects to everything else”.
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Ultraviolet
Terpenes are aromatic compounds that give cannabis some of its most distinct aromas from citrus and berry, to more earthy tones. Many species of plants produce and emit terpenes in a diurnal, or daily cycle that is regulated by a complex web of signaling. There are also many plants that emit terpenes at night to attract nocturnal pollinators (Marinho et al., 2014346). Regardless of when the terpenes are produced or emitted, these processes are often dependent upon cues derived from natural light/dark cycles via a native circadian clock (Dudareva et al., 2004). Several light-sensitive pigments are involved in these processes of production and emission, and the different photoreceptors are dependent upon different wavelengths of light to be activated or deactivated. Emission of terpenes is a process that is entirely dependent upon phytochromes and red/far-red light cues in most plant species (Flores and Doskey, 2015). For example, repeated light/dark phytochrome signaling is necessary for the emission of terpenes in tobacco plants (Roeder et al., 2007). Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that a lack of red light and phytochrome-mediated light/dark signaling on the part of the plant is responsible for an increase in terpene content in cannabis. The plant continues to synthesize terpenes, but a lack of red light to trigger the Pr-Pfr shift results in a lack of terpene emission by the plant, thus causing the terpenes to accumulate in the maturing flowers. REFERENCES Dudareva N, Pichersky E, Gershenzon J. Biochemistry of Plant Volatiles. Plant Physiology. 2004;135(4):1893- 1902. Flores, R.M., Doskey, P.V., Estimating Terpene and Terpenoid Emissions from Conifer Oleoresin Composition. Atmospheric Environment. 2015. 113, 32-40. Marinho, C.R.; Souza, C.D.; Barros, T.C.; Teixeira, S.P.; Dafni, A. Scent glands in legume flowers. Plant Biology , Volume 16 (1) – Jan 1, 2014 Roeder S, Hartmann AM, Effmert U, Piechulla B (2007) Regulation of simultaneous synthesis of floral scent terpenoids by the 1,8-cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens. Plant Mol Biol 65: 107-12
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The Lips of Wisdom Are Closed Except To The Ears of Understanding
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Ultraviolet
The connection between these spheres is created by water. Conversely, the various states of aggregation of water form the bridges for the formation and reconstitution of the basic elements carried by water, which succeed in reaching the Earth's interior from the stratosphere and vice versa. The purely mechanical circulation of the physical form - water - operates in the opposite direction to the circulation of energy. The rising of the C-substances with their carrier - water - is countered by the sinking of the oxygen. Where these 5 Carbone: In contrast to the normal use and definition of 'carbon', Viktor Schauberger grouped all the known elements and their compounds, with the exception of oxygen and hydrogen, under the general classification of 'Mother Substances', which he described with the word 'Kohle-stoffe', normally spelt 'Kohlenstoffe' and meaning carbon. Apart from the above definition the hyphen also signifies a higher aspect of carbon, both physically and energetically or immaterially. The additional V in the English word is therefore intended to redefine and enlarge the scope of the usual term 'carbon' in accordance with Viktor's concepts. On occasion carbone will be represented by the term C' to differentiate it from the normal term for carbon — C- Ed. Mutually contra-directional currents intersect, and energy is freed. These energetic interactions can never reach a state of rest due to the constant variation in the length of night and day. Inevitably, therefore, there is a continual shift in the individual microclimatic conditions, which further results in variations in the quantity and quality of the basic elements. The outcome of this incessant reciprocal activity on the one hand is the reconstitution of other various kinds of water present in the individual zones, and on the other, the constant transformation of the species of vegetation in which water makes its way, ceaselessly moved by this inner interplay of forces. This inner, energetic interaction, however, is opposed by the effect of the water's weight. The alternating magnitudes of these component force inevitably lead to the constant rising and falling of the water particles - the so-called pulsation of water. Every new formation and all growth is derived from the smallest beginnings. Continuing development in the early stages can only be accomplished if the circulation in the Earth's interior proceeds correctly. According to inner law, every higher form of vegetation is built up from the lower species preceding it. The carrier of the substances and the transmitter of the life processes in the root zone is the groundwater. The impulse for its movement is caused by a drop in temperature, to which the inner metabolic processes of the here decisive groups of basic elements give rise. The impulse for the movement of water is thus a product of the interactions between the opposites contained within it, which find their necessary resistance in the water itself. Through the resistance arising from the interactions between carbone and oxygen, fluctuations in temperature again occur and with them the impulse to move - the pulsation of water, which in this way at times dissolves salts and at others deposits them, transports them, creates energies and transforms them. The sense and purpose of these perpetual transformation processes is the creation and maintenance of the various types of vegetation and physical forms, which on their part again represent the bridges for the build-up and maintenance of the energies. The potential differences in constant existence between inner and outer temperatures are none other than forms of energy, which complete the cycle of water and at the same time kindle it anew. Evolutionary manifestations are, therefore, 1, of material, and 2. of immaterial nature. Stone, plants, animals, human beings, planets and Sun are organisms possessed of body and soul. Every ray of light or heat requires a physical form in which it can evolve, or organize itself. Everybody requires an inner energy that builds it up or transforms it. When a body disintegrates then those energies that created it will again be freed. They are never lost. If they lose their place of abode with the decaying of the body, then they are willingly taken up by the water that eternally circulates in, on, and above the Earth and which conducts them once more to a new life. Therefore wherever we look there is life, constant formation, and transformation. Should we look into apparent emptiness, then a sea of spiritual life, passed and future generations, returns our gaze. Every material form of vegetation is always the reflection of an immaterial form consisting of light, heat, and radiation. Every change in sphere changes the outer and inner relations of the whole, changes the weight and the intensity of the inner radiation of water and thus the direction in which this carrier of life moves. Disturbances to the inner and outer conformities with natural law lead to a disturbance in the organization of the whole evolution of life. The disappearance of water or its substantial transformation is a very serious warning sign because the character of the water also changes with its inner composition, and with this the character of all forms of life, including human beings. The qualitative decline of the vegetation and above all the deterioration of the highest plant organism - the forest, the psychic and moral degeneration of humankind, is only the legitimate consequence of the disturbance of the physical composition of water and the disruption of the geosphere occasioned by humanity's subversive activity in the organism of the Earth. What we are experiencing today is no crisis, but rather the demise of the whole, i.e. the qualitative, physical degeneration of all organisms, brought into effect through the disturbance of Nature's water balance. In step with this devolution goes the moral, mental and spiritual collapse of humanity, which has already reached such an advanced state, that despite all warning signs people still do not recognize the seriousness of the situation. Worse than animals, they seek their final salvation in the decimation of humanity with weapons of war, that our priests even bless along with the banners under which our children are supposed to bleed to death. The decision, whether we take the latter path or whether at the final hour we can protect ourselves from our own self-mutilation, only lies with us, or with those men of science and the state, who take upon themselves an altogether appalling responsibility, when out of personal interest, with no consideration of the gravity of the situation and being incapable of bringing any effective help, they continue to adhere to their present point of view.
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
The photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) activates photomorphogenic responses when plants are exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. However, whereas the absorption spectrum of UVR8 peaks at 280 nm, action spectra for several photomorphogenic UV-B responses show maximal photon effectiveness at 290–300 nm. T
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Harvest just about the entire plant when it's ready, but leave a popcorn bud on the 4 lowest branches of the plant, (two on each side of the stalk). These will be where all your new stems will grow out of. Once you have picked your plant, cut it all the way down to those 4 branches, hit it with some growth fertilizer, and put it under an LED or MH light 24/7. Each popcorn bud should have 10+ stems growing out of each one. The last time I did this, I used (2) 12 watt LED grow lights to get things started. BTW, too much light at this point can kill your already stressed plant, so go easy on the watts. It will take a little over one month before you should move them into your grow tent, then another couple months in veg before switching to a flowering schedule. You'll need to keep a fan on the stems growing out from those popcorn buds because they will be skinny. SCROG works well in this situation, especially when the buds swell, and branches start bending. I had 67 mini-colas on my last grow which weighed out to almost 9 cured ounces. You can do this as many times as you want, as long as you're not growing an autoflower, (3x's my max) Just make sure that each time you harvest, you leave a few tiny buds near the bottom to start your next grow from. This is the result of a Blue Dream that was chopped down to the last 4 buds, then did what was explained above, and got a plant 2 1/2 feet tall, and almost 4'x4′. OR, YOU CAN KILL THE PLANT, BUT KEEP THE GENETICS It's as simple as putting pollen into a baggie, then putting it over a female branch, and tying the end shut. This way the pollen doesn't go everywhere, and you only sacrifice the end of a branch to get a batch of seeds.
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Light provides energy for photosynthesis and also acts as an important environmental signal. During their evolution, plants acquired sophisticated sensory systems for light perception and light-dependent regulation of their growth and development in accordance with the local light environment. Under natural conditions, plants adapted by using their light sensors to finely distinguish direct sunlight and dark in the soil, deep grey shade under the upper soil layer or litter, green shade under the canopy and even lateral green reflectance from neighbours. Light perception also allows plants to evaluate in detail the weather, time of day, day length and thus the season. However, in artificial lighting conditions, plants are confronted with fundamentally different lighting conditions. The advent of new light sources - light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which emit narrow-band light - allows growing plants with light of different spectral bands or their combinations. This sets the task of finding out how light of different quality affects the development and functioning of plants, and in particular, their photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), which is one of the basic processes determining plant yield. In this review, we briefly describe how plants perceive environment light signals by their five families of photoreceptors and by the PSA as a particular light sensor, and how they use this information to form their PSA under artificial narrow-band LED-based lighting of different spectral composition. We consider light regulation of the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic complexes and chloroplast ATP synthase function, PSA photoprotection mechanisms, carbon assimilation reactions and stomatal development and function. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12551-022-00985-z
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Leap in quantum photon efficiency through light harvesting in photoreceptor UVR8 Plants utilize a UV-B (280 to 315 nm) photoreceptor UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) to sense environmental UV levels and regulate gene expression to avoid harmful UV effects. Uniquely, UVR8 uses intrinsic tryptophan for UV-B perception with a homodimer structure containing 26 structural tryptophan residues. However, besides 8 tryptophans at the dimer interface to form two critical pyramid perception centers, the other 18 tryptophans’ functional role is unknown. Here, using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy, computational methods and extensive mutations, we find that all 18 tryptophans form light-harvesting networks and funnel their excitation energy to the pyramid centers to enhance light-perception efficiency. We determine the timescales of all elementary tryptophan-to-tryptophan energy-transfer steps in picoseconds to nanoseconds, in excellent agreement with quantum computational calculations, and finally reveal a significant leap in light-perception quantum efficiency from 35% to 73%. This photoreceptor is the first system discovered so far, to be best of our knowledge, using natural amino-acid tryptophans to form networks for both light harvesting and light perception.
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Organic marijuana is simply tastier, healthier, and more potent for both medical and recreational purposes. According to MMJ Business Daily, the majority of cannabis consumers in Colorado, California, and Washington State prefer organic marijuana compared to hydroponically-grown weed. In fact, those same respondents prefered organically-grown schwag over hydroponically-grown schwag. That’s saying a lot! Hydroponically-grown schwag is usually dry, brittle, brown and loaded with seeds and stems. That same schwag tastes horrible when you smoke it because it was fed with lab-made fertilizers as opposed to the kind of “food” that pot plants prefer to eat. That’s the beauty of organically-grown weed—be it the highest grade or the lowest schwag—it tastes better than anything else out there
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
In January 2010 Science Daily and Physics World announced the discovery of a hidden Phi symmetry in solid state matter. As explained in the Science Daily article: Hidden phi or golden ratio symmetry as found in solid state matter“On the atomic scale particles do not behave as we know it in the macro-atomic world. New properties emerge which are the result of an effect known as the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. In order to study these nanoscale quantum effects the researchers have focused on the magnetic material cobalt niobate. It consists of linked magnetic atoms, which form chains just like a very thin bar magnet, but only one atom wide and are a useful model for describing ferromagnetism on the nanoscale in solid state matter. When applying a magnetic field at right angles to an aligned spin the magnetic chain will transform into a new state called quantum critical, which can be thought of as a quantum version of a fractal pattern. Prof. Alan Tennant, the leader of the Berlin group, explains “The system reaches a quantum uncertain — or a Schrödinger cat state. This is what we did in our experiments with cobalt niobate. We have tuned the system exactly in order to turn it quantum critical.” By tuning the system and artificially introducing more quantum uncertainty the researchers observed that the chain of atoms acts like a nanoscale guitar string. Dr. Radu Coldea from Oxford University, who is the principal author of the paper and drove the international project from its inception a decade ago until the present, explains: “Here the tension comes from the interaction between spins causing them to magnetically resonate. For these interactions we found a series (scale) of resonant notes: The first two notes show a perfect relationship with each other. Their frequencies (pitch) are in the ratio of 1.618…, which is the golden ratio famous from art and architecture.” Radu Coldea is convinced that this is no coincidence. “It reflects a beautiful property of the quantum system — a hidden symmetry. Actually quite a special one called E8 by mathematicians, and this is its first observation in a material,” he explains.” The E8 structure itself has relationships to Phi (1.618).